Island populations can represent genetically distinct and evolutionarily important lineages relative to mainland conspecifics. However, phenotypic divergence of island populations does not necessarily reflect genetic divergence, particularly for lineages inhabiting islands periodically connected during Pleistocene low sea stands. Marine barriers may also not be solely responsible for any divergence that is observed. Here, we investigated genetic divergence among and within the three phenotypically distinct subspecies of bare‐nosed wombats (Vombatus ursinus) in south‐east Australia that are presently—but were not historically—isolated by marine barriers. Using genome‐wide single nucleotide polymorphisms, we identified three genetically distinct groups (mainland Australia, Bass Strait island, and Tasmania) corresponding to the recognized subspecies. However, isolation by distance was observed in the Tasmanian population, indicating additional constraints on gene flow can contribute to divergence in the absence of marine barriers, and may also explain genetic structuring among fragmented mainland populations. We additionally confirm origins and quantify the genetic divergence of an island population 46 years after the introduction of 21 individuals from the Vulnerable Bass Strait subspecies. In the light of our findings, we make recommendations for the maintenance of genetic variation and fitness across the species range.
Pyrenophora teres, P. teres f. teres (PTT) and P. teres f. maculata (PTM) cause significant diseases in barley, but little is known about the large-scale genomic differences that may distinguish the two forms. Comprehensive genome assemblies were constructed from long DNA reads, optical and genetic maps. As repeat masking in fungal genomes influences the final gene annotations, an accurate and reproducible pipeline was developed to ensure comparability between isolates. The genomes of the two forms are highly collinear, each composed of 12 chromosomes. Genome evolution in P. teres is characterized by genome fissuring through the insertion and expansion of transposable elements (TEs), a process that isolates blocks of genic sequence. The phenomenon is particularly pronounced in PTT, which has a larger, more repetitive genome than PTM and more recent transposon activity measured by the frequency and size of genome fissures. PTT has a longer cultivated host association and, notably, a greater range of host–pathogen genetic interactions compared to other Pyrenophora spp., a property which associates better with genome size than pathogen lifestyle. The two forms possess similar complements of TE families with Tc1/Mariner and LINE-like Tad-1 elements more abundant in PTT. Tad-1 was only detectable as vestigial fragments in PTM and, within the forms, differences in genome sizes and the presence and absence of several TE families indicated recent lineage invasions. Gene differences between P. teres forms are mainly associated with gene-sparse regions near or within TE-rich regions, with many genes possessing characteristics of fungal effectors. Instances of gene interruption by transposons resulting in pseudogenization were detected in PTT. In addition, both forms have a large complement of secondary metabolite gene clusters indicating significant capacity to produce an array of different molecules. This study provides genomic resources for functional genetics to help dissect factors underlying the host–pathogen interactions.