Simultaneously accounting for population structure, genotype by environment interaction, and spatial variation in marker-trait associations in sugarcane

Few association mapping studies have simultaneously accounted for population structure, genotype by environment interaction (GEI), and spatial variation. In this sugarcane association mapping study we tested models accounting for these factors and identified the impact that each model component had on the list of markers declared as being significantly associated with traits. About 480 genotypes were evaluated for cane yield and sugar content at three sites and scored with DArT markers. A mixed model was applied in analysis of the data to simultaneously account for the impacts of population structure, GEI, and spatial variation within a trial.