Precise utilization of wild genetic resources to improve the resistance of their cultivated relatives to environmental growth limiting factors, such as salinity stress and diseases, requires a clear understanding of their genomic relationships. Although seriously criticized, analyzing these relationships in tribe Triticeae has largely been based on meiotic chromosome pairing in hybrids of wide crosses, a specialized and labourious strategy. In this study, DArTseq, an efficient genotyping-by-sequencing platform, was applied to analyze the genomes of 34 Triticeae species. We reconstructed the phylogenetic relationships among diploid and polyploid Aegilops and Triticum species, including hexaploid wheat. Tentatively, we have identified the diploid genomes that are likely to have been involved in the evolution of five polyploid species of Aegilops, which have remained unresolved for decades. Explanations which cast light on the progenitor of the A genomes and the complex genomic status of the B/G genomes of polyploid Triticumspecies in the Emmer and Timopheevi lineages of wheat have also been provided. This study has, therefore, demonstrated that DArTseq genotyping can be effectively applied to analyze the genomes of plants, especially where their genome sequence information are not available.