Advances in biochemical and molecular marker techniques and their applications in genetic studies of orchid: A review

Characterization is most important for correct identification of plants. It helps to understand the genetic diversity, to trace out the phylo-genetic relationship, taxonomical status, registration, plant variety protection, farmer’s right etc. The use of biochemical and molecular markers for genetic diversity analysis as a selection tool is a high priority area for new orchid cultivars and the exploitation of species diversity. Biochemical markers, molecular markers and DNA sequence analysis allow a more complete characterization and understanding of the genetic relationships between species and cultivars. Various types of techniques are used to estimate genetic studies such as isozymes, allozymes, phyto-chemical and DNA markers like amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP), cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS), DNA amplification fingerprinting (DAF), diversity arrays technology (DArT), next generation sequencing technology (NGST), expressed sequence tags (EST), inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR), microsatellite primed PCR (MPPCR), multiplexed allele-specific diagnostic assay (MASDA), random amplified microsatellite polymorphisms (RAMP), random amplified microsatellites (RAM), random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), sequence characterized amplified regions (SCAR), sequence specific amplification polymorphisms (S-SAP), sequence tagged microsatellite site (STMS), sequence tagged site (STS), short tandem repeats (STR), simple sequence length polymorphism (SSLP), simple sequence repeats (SSRs), single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), single primer amplification reactions (SPAR) and variable number tandem repeat (VNTR). Among these techniques, some techniques have been used for genetic diversity analysis of orchid. Today, new techniques are frequently being developed and no such techniques are ideal yet these fulfill all requirements needed by plant researchers. Each technique has its own advantages and limitations. This review is an attempt to discuss a basic description of different biochemical and molecular techniques that can be utilized for genetic studies in orchids.
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