Genotyping by sequencing (GBS) is an efficient method of genotyping in numerous plant species. One of the crucial steps toward the application of GBS markers in crop improvement is anchoring them on particular chromosomes. In rye (Secale cereale L.), chromosomal localization of GBS markers has not yet been reported. In this paper, the application of GBS markers generated by the DArTseq platform for extending the high-density map of rye is presented. Additionally, their application is used for the localization of the Rfc1 gene that restores male fertility in plants with the C source of sterility-inducing cytoplasm. The total number of markers anchored on the current version of the map is 19,081, of which 18,132 were obtained from the DArTseq platform. Numerous markers co-segregated within the studied mapping population, so, finally, only 3397 unique positions were located on the map of all seven rye chromosomes. The total length of the map is 1593 cM and the average distance between markers is 0.47 cM. In spite of the resolution of the map being not very high, it should be a useful tool for further studies of the Secale cereale genome because of the presence on this map of numerous GBS markers anchored for the first time on rye chromosomes. The Rfc1 gene was located on high-density maps of the long arm of the 4R chromosome obtained for two mapping populations. Genetic maps were composed of DArT, DArTseq, and PCR-based markers. Consistent mapping results were obtained and DArTs tightly linked to the Rfc1 gene were successfully applied for the development of six new PCR-based markers useful in marker-assisted selection.
Background: The extent to which sex reversal is associated with transitions in sex determining systems (XX-XY, ZZ-ZW, etc.) or abnormal sexual differentiation is predominantly unexplored in amphibians. This is in large part because most amphibian taxa have homomorphic sex chromosomes, which has traditionally made it challenging to identify discordance between phenotypic and genetic sex in amphibians, despite all amphibians having a genetic component to sex determination. Recent advances in molecular techniques such as genome complexity reduction and high throughput sequencing present a valuable avenue for furthering our understanding of sex determination in amphibians and other taxa with homomorphic sex chromosomes like many fish and reptiles. Results: We use DArTseq as a novel approach to identify sex-linked markers in the North American green frog (Rana clamitans melanota) using lab-reared tadpoles as well as wild-caught adults from seven ponds either in undeveloped, forested habitats or suburban ponds known to be subject to contamination by anthropogenic chemicals. The DArTseq methodology identified 13 sex-linked SNP loci and eight presence-absence loci associated with males, indicating an XX-XY system. Both alleles from a single locus show partial high sequence homology to Dmrt1, a gene linked to sex determination and differentiation throughout Metazoa. Two other loci have sequence similarities to regions of the chimpanzee and human X-chromosome as well as the chicken Z-chromosome. Several loci also show geographic variation in sex-linkage, possibly indicating sex chromosome recombination. While all loci are statistically sex-linked, they show varying degrees of female heterozygosity and male homozygosity, providing further evidence that some markers are on regions of the sex chromosomes undergoing higher rates of recombination and therefore further apart from the putative sex determining locus. Conclusion: The ease of the DArTseq platform provides a useful avenue for future research on sex reversal and sex chromosome evolution in vertebrates, particularly for non-model species with homomorphic or cryptic or nascent sex chromosomes.
Background and aims: Dessert and cooking bananas are vegetatively propagated crops of great importance for both the subsistence and the livelihood of people in developing countries. A wide diversity of diploid and triploid cultivars including AA, AB, AS, AT, AAA, AAB, ABB, AAS and AAT genomic constitutions exists. Within each of this genome groups, cultivars are classified into subgroups that are reported to correspond to varieties clonally derived from each other after a single sexual event. The number of those founding events at the basis of the diversity of bananas is a matter of debate. Methods: We analysed a large panel of 575 accessions, 94 wild relatives and 481 cultivated accessions belonging to the section Musa with a set of 498 DArT markers previously developed. Key results: DArT appeared successful and accurate to describe Musa diversity and help in the resolution of cultivated banana genome constitution and taxonomy, and highlighted discrepancies in the acknowledged classification of some accessions. This study also argues for at least two centres of domestication corresponding to South-East Asia and New Guinea, respectively. Banana domestication in New Guinea probably followed different schemes that those previously reported where hybridization underpins the emergence of edible banana. In addition, our results suggest that not all wild ancestors of bananas are known, especially in M. acuminata subspecies. We also estimate the extent of the two consecutive bottlenecks in edible bananas by evaluating the number of sexual founding events underlying our sets of edible diploids and triploids, respectively. Conclusions: The attribution of clone identity to each sample of the sets allowed the detection of subgroups represented by several sets of clones. Although morphological characterization of some of the accessions is needed to correct potentially erroneous classifications, some of the subgroups seem polyclonal.
This is the first genetic study reporting on the interaction and molecular mapping of resistance to the barley grass stripe rust pathogen (Puccinia striiformis f. sp. pseudo‐hordei, Psph) in common wheat. Seedlings of 638 wheat accessions were tested and it was determined that wheat is a near‐nonhost to Psph based on rare susceptibility observed in <2% of commercial cultivars and <5% of wheat landraces. As previously observed for P. striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst), the Australian cultivar Teal was highly susceptible to Psph. In contrast, a selection of cv. Avocet carrying complementary resistance genes Yr73 and Yr74 (Avocet R; AvR) was resistant. The Teal × AvR (T/A) doubled haploid (DH) population was used to map resistance in AvR to Psph. Infection types on the T/A DH lines inoculated with Psph and Pst indicated that all DH lines carrying both Yr73 and Yr74 were also resistant to Psph; however, fewer DH lines were susceptible to Psph than expected, suggesting the resistance was more complex. QTL analysis using 9053 DArT‐Seq markers determined that resistance to Psph was polygenically inherited and mapped to chromosomes 3A, 3D, 4A and 5B. The 3DL and 5BL markers co‐located with Yr73 and Yr74, suggesting an overlap between host and non‐host resistance mechanisms.
Till this day, there is not much known about the phylogeny of the Secale genus; therefore, in our research, we tried to shed some lights on the issue of rye (Secale genus) taxonomy. The genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships were evaluated using 13,842 DArTseq™ polymorphic markers. The model-based clustering (STRUCTURE software) separated our 84 samples into three main clusters: perennial cluster, annual cluster, and S. sylvestre cluster. The same result was obtained using Neighbour Joining tree and self-organizing maps. Secale sylvestre, S. strictum, and S. cereale are the three main species of the Secale genus. Three samples of rye are in basal positions in phylogenetic trees. These accessions share ancient morphological characters and are probably the ancestors of different lineages within Secale. Annual Secale taxa, with the exception of S. sylvestre, create one mutual taxon. We have found out that the semi-perennial taxa of S. cereale var. multicaule and S. strictum subsp. ciliatoglume are genetically closest to the annual species of S. cereale. Phylogenetic signals for semi-perennial and annual taxa are also present in S. strictum subsp. africanum. SNP-based analysis revealed that evolution of annual S. cereale has already begun in S. strictum subsp. africanum. The results showed that S. vavilovii cannot be considered as a separate species but a subspecies of S. cereale Secale cereale subsp. dighoricum is a hybrid. It is still not clear whether we can consider S. strictum subsp. strictum and S. strictum subsp. kuprijanovii as two separate species.