Genome-wide QTL analysis of potato tuber carotenoid content was investigated in populations of Solanum tuberosum Group Phureja that segregate for flesh colour, revealing a novel major QTL on chromosome 9
High-density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping arrays are a powerful tool for studying genomic patterns of diversity, inferring ancestral relationships between individuals in populations and studying marker–trait associations in mapping experiments. We developed a genotyping array including about 90 000 gene-associated SNPs and used it to characterize genetic variation in allohexaploid and allotetraploid wheat populations. The array includes a significant fraction of common genome-wide distributed SNPs that are represented in populations of diverse geographical origin. We used density-based spatial clustering algorithms to enable high-throughput genotype calling in complex data sets obtained for polyploid wheat. We show that these model-free clustering algorithms provide accurate genotype calling in the presence of multiple clusters including clusters with low signal intensity resulting from significant sequence divergence at the target SNP site or gene deletions. Assays that detect low-intensity clusters can provide insight into the distribution of presence–absence variation (PAV) in wheat populations. A total of 46 977 SNPs from
the wheat 90K array were genetically mapped using a combination of eight mapping populations. The developed array and cluster identification algorithms provide an opportunity to infer detailed haplotype structure in polyploid wheat and will serve as an invaluable resource for diversity studies and investigating the genetic basis of trait variation in wheat.
Fire blight, caused by the Gram-negative bacterium Erwinia amylovora, is the most important bacterial disease affecting apple (Malus × domestica) and pear (Pyrus communis) production. The use of antibiotic treatment, though effective to some degree, is forbidden or strictly regulated in many European countries, and hence an alternative means of control is essential. The planting of fire blight-resistant cultivars seems to be a highly feasible strategy. In this study, we explored a segregating population derived from a cross between the wild apple species Malus fusca and the M. × domestica cultivar Idared. F1 progenies used for mapping were artificially inoculated with Erwinia amylovora strain Ea222_JKI at a concentration of 109 cfu/ml in three different years. The averages of percentage lesion length of all replicates of each genotype were used as numerical traits for statistical analysis. A Kruskal–Wallis analysis was used to determine marker–phenotype association and revealed a linkage group with Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT) markers significantly linked with fire blight. After locating the positions of the DArT markers on the Golden Delicious genome, simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were developed from chromosome 10 to replace the DArT markers and to determine the quantitative trait locus (QTL) region. Multiple QTL mapping (MQM) revealed a strong QTL (Mfu10) on linkage group 10 of M. fusca explaining about 65.6 % of the phenotypic variation. This is the first report on a fire blight resistance QTL of M. fusca.
In this study we used 1054 Diversity Array Technology (DArT) markers with defined chromosomal location to characterize genetic diversity and population structure in a collection of 379 rye accessions including wild species, landraces, cultivated materials, historical and contemporary rye varieties.
A set of about 100 winter barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivars, comprising diverse and economically important German barley elite germplasm released during the last six decades, was previously genotypically characterized by single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers using the Illumina GoldenGate BeadArray Technology to detect associations with phenotypic data estimated in three-year field trials at 12 locations.
An integrated dense linkage map of Brassica carinata (BBCC) was constructed in a doubled haploid population based on DArT-SeqTM markers. A total of 4,031 markers corresponding to 1,366 unique loci were mapped including 639 bins, covering a genetic distance of 2,048 cM. We identified 136 blocks and islands conserved in Brassicaceae, which showed a feature of hexaploidisation representing the suggested ancestral crucifer karyotype.
Promising genome regions for improving cold tolerance of sorghum were identified on chromosomes SBI-01, SBI-03, SBI-07, and SBI-10. Chlorophyll fluorescence had no major effect on growth rates at low temperatures. Developing fast growing sorghum seedlings is an important breeding goal for temperate climates since low springtime temperatures are resulting in a prolonged juvenile development.
Resistance to pod shattering (shatter resistance) is a target trait for global rapeseed (canola, Brassica napus L.), improvement programs to minimise grain loss in the mature standing crop, and during windrowing and mechanical harvest. We describe the genetic basis of natural variation for shatter resistance in B. napus and show that several quantitative trait loci (QTL) control this trait. To identify loci underlying shatter resistance, we used a novel genotyping-by-sequencing approach DArT-Seq. QTL analysis detected a total of 12 significant QTL on chromosomes A03, A07, A09, C03, C04, C06, and C08; which jointly account for approximately 57% of the genotypic variation in shatter resistance. Through Genome-Wide Association Studies, we show that a large number of loci, including those that are involved in shattering in Arabidopsis, account for variation in shatter resistance in diverse B. napus germplasm. Our results indicate that genetic diversity for shatter resistance genes in B. napus is limited; many of the genes that might control this trait were not included during the natural creation of this species, or were not retained during the domestication and selection process. We speculate that valuable diversity for this trait was lost during the natural creation of B. napus. To improve shatter resistance, breeders will need to target the introduction of useful alleles especially from genotypes of other related species of Brassica, such as those that we have identified.
The sequence of these DArT markers plus SNP and EST-SSR markers was then used to form a bridge to the sorghum genomic sequence by BLAST alignment to start to unravel the complex genomic architecture of sugarcane.